How does a fancy yarn take shape?
After mixing the wool flocks, the fancy effect that will characterize the yarn is not homogenously blended, the colours that compose the mélange effect can still be distinguished in different blocks.
After one day and one night’s rest, the coloured wool fibres, separated and blended, are ready to be disentangled and made parallel: the carding process can begin.
This method owes its name to the flower of the teasel, which in ancient times was dried and brushed by hand against the wool. This is the principle that gave birth to modern carding rollers, in fact these machines carry out the same delicate operation as the flowers, but on a larger production scale.
The carding machine is made of rotating cylinders equipped with thick needles, through which wool flocks are passed, until a layer of unidirectional fibres, called card web, is obtained.
The shades’ movement accurately studied in the mixing recipe takes shape on the card web, and adds a colourful three-dimensional effect to the final yarn.
The final part of the carding machine divides the card web into a series of flat bands, each of which undergoes a first torsion that transforms it into a roving: a circular cross section band which can be processed by the spinning machines.
Dried teasels are still part of the textile industry; today they are used for the external finishing of the carded wool cloth, a process called teazling: applied especially to precious types of fibers such as cashmere, alpaca and camel. This operation is carried out passing the piece of fabric through two rotating cylinders covered of teasels, which lightly brush against the hairs, lifting and directing them, creating a fur-like effect.
The cylinders that compose the carding machine are linked by belts that transmit movement and synchronize the speed of the mechanisms with which the wool flocks are pulled and worked inside the machine. Up to the seventies, belt production was carried out at Lanificio Paoletti’s internal tannery.